This 2-hour session focuses on important internal control considerations. This includes both evaluating the design and implementation of internal controls, which is required on all engagements. It also includes testing controls for operating effectiveness, which should be considered as part of the risk assessment procedures. This area is one of the most commonly misunderstood and misapplied aspects of the audit process, particularly given the recent significant changes in auditing standards. Inappropriate or inadequate judgment calls made at this stage of the engagement could have the greatest impact on financial statement audit effectiveness and efficiency. Missteps in this area also have the greatest likelihood of being identified as deficiencies in peer or regulatory review.